Types of central nervous system tumors
Astrocytoma (low grade) - Are slow growing tumors. Most commonly seen in children is the juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma or JPA. JPAs are graded from I to II. Grade I means it is slow growing, most easily treated and
has very little risk of spreading. Grade II can spread and invade surrounding brain. Oligodendrolioma is another type of grade II astrocytoma tumor.
Astrocytoma (high grade) - 10% of pediatric brain tumors are high-grade astrocytomas. An anaplastic astrocytoma is classified as a grade III tumor. These tumors have the ability to invade surrounding brain tissue and can spread
to other parts of the brain or spinal cord. A glioblastoma multiforme is a grade IV tumor. This is the most aggressive of the astrocytomas., with the highest rate of spread into the surrounding brain and through the CSF to other areas of the brain
and spinal cord.
Medulloblastoma - Most common type of malignant pediatric tumors. These tumors can spread through the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Medulloblastomas are staged according to the amount of tumor removed at initial surgery,
the appearance of the cell under the microscope and whether there is evidence of cells spreading through the CSF at diagnosis.
Ependymomas - Account for 9% of all pediatric CNS tumors. They originate from ependymal cells, which are the cells that line the ventricles of the brain and the center of the spinal cord. Ependymomas that occur in the
spinal cord are most common in teenagers. Ependymomas are classified according to degree or malignancy of the cells.