At the Beaumont Cancer Institute, most treatment procedures for prostate cancer are performed with surgery or radiation. Few studies exist comparing treatments for different stages of prostate cancer. Fortunately, for most cancer stages, different therapies have achieved similar results. The high quality of prostate cancer care at Beaumont is reflected in survival rates that exceed the national average.
Surgical prostate cancer specialists at Beaumont have concentrated on improving quality of life while reducing short- and long-term complications. For example, the use of robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy has increased dramatically. This precise surgical treatment for prostate cancer removes cancerous tissue while minimizing disruption to surrounding tissue. Since 2007, extreme cold (cryoablation) has been used to destroy cancerous tissues in select cases.
Beaumont’s prostate cancer specialists can customize a treatment plan by drawing on the multiple therapies available at Beaumont. They will consider:
- patient preference
- location and extent of disease
- physician experience and preference
- availability of the technique
Learn more about prostate cancer treatments:
- Surgical Oncology
- Radiation Oncology
- Prostate Brachytherapy at Beaumont
- Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer
The following are some of the different surgical options used to treat prostate cancer:
- Radical prostatectomy: An open-surgery procedure in which the entire prostate gland and some tissue around it are removed. This surgery involves an incision in either the abdomen or the scrotum area.
- Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: A less-invasive type of radical prostatectomy in which the prostate gland is removed using a laparoscope (a long, flexible lighted tube with a video camera attached). This type of procedure may also be performed using a surgical robot.
- Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP): Surgery to remove part of the prostate gland that surrounds the urethra by using a small tool that is placed inside the prostate through the urethra. There is no incision with this method. TURP is used as a palliative procedure (to relieve symptoms), not as a procedure to cure the cancer.
- Cryosurgery: A procedure that involves killing the cancer by freezing the cells with a small, metal tool placed in the tumor.
Surgery for prostate cancer generally requires a stay in the hospital. The length of the hospital stay will depend on the type of procedure performed. A urinary catheter will be inserted into the bladder during surgery, and will be kept in place for a period of time afterwards, often for one to two weeks.
Long-term, serious side effects are somewhat less common now than in the past, as new surgical methods continue to be introduced. New, nerve-sparing surgical procedures may prevent permanent injury to the nerves that control erection, and damage to the opening of the bladder. However, possible complications and side effects of prostate cancer surgery still exist. Recent research shows that having an experienced surgeon leads to a better outcome for patients. Be sure to discuss the following with your physician before a surgical procedure:
- Incontinence is the inability to control urine and may result in leakage or dribbling of urine, especially just after surgery. Normal control returns for many patients within several weeks or months after surgery, although some patients become permanently incontinent.
- Impotence is the inability to have an erection of the penis. For a month, or up to several months, after surgery, most men are not able to get an erection. Eventually, about half of men will be able to get an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse, but without ejaculation of semen, since removal of the prostate gland prevents that process.
This effect on a man’s ability to achieve an erection is related to the stage of the cancer, the patient’s ability to have an erection before surgery, and the patient’s age. However, most men who have surgery should expect some decrease in their ability to have an erection. For men who are completely impotent after surgery, several solutions are available.