Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, or chemical irritants. It is a serious infection or inflammation in which the air sacs fill with pus and other liquid.
- Lobar pneumonia: this affects one or more sections
(lobes) of the lungs.
- Bronchial pneumonia (or bronchopneumonia): this affects patches throughout both lungs. childhood pneumonia
What are the different types of pneumonia?
This is caused by various bacteria. The streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterium that causes bacterial pneumonia.
Many other bacteria may cause bacterial pneumonia including:
- Group B streptococcus
- Staphylococcus aureus
- Group A streptococcus
Bacterial pneumonia may have a quick onset and the following symptoms may occur:
- Productive cough
- Pain in the chest
- Vomiting or diarrhea
- Decrease in appetite
This is caused by various viruses, including the following:
- Respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV (most commonly seen in children under age 5)
- Parainfluenza virus
- Influenza virus
Early symptoms of viral pneumonia are the same as those of bacterial pneumonia. However, with viral pneumonia, the respiratory involvement happens slowly. Wheezing may occur and the cough may worsen.
Viral pneumonias may make a child susceptible to bacterial pneumonia.
This presents somewhat different symptoms and physical signs than other types of pneumonia. They generally cause a mild, widespread pneumonia that affects all age groups.
Symptoms usually do not start with a cold, and may include the following:
- Fever and cough are the first to develop
- Cough that is persistent and may last three to four weeks
- A severe cough that may produce some mucus
- Other less common pneumonias may be caused by the inhaling of food, liquid, gases or dust, or by fungi.
What are the symptoms of pneumonia?
In addition to the symptoms listed above, all pneumonias share the following symptoms.
- Chest or stomach pain
- Decrease in appetite
- Breathing fast or hard
- Not feeling well
How is pneumonia diagnosed?
Diagnosis is usually made based on the season and the extent of the illness. Based on these factors, your doctor may diagnose simply on a thorough history and physical examination, but may include the following tests to confirm the diagnosis:
Chest X-ray is a diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
Blood tests help determine blood count for evidence of infection; arterial blood gas to analyze the amount of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood.
Sputum culture is a diagnostic test performed on the material that is coughed up from the lungs and into the mouth. A sputum culture is often performed to determine if an infection is present.
An oximeter is a small machine that measures the amount of oxygen in the blood. To obtain this measurement, a small sensor (like a Band-Aid) is taped onto a finger or toe. When the machine is on, a small red light can be seen in the sensor. The sensor
is painless and the red light does not get hot.
Chest CT scan is a test that takes images of the structures in the chest
Bronchoscopy is a procedure used to look inside the airways of the lungs.
Pleural fluid culture is a culture of fluid sample taken from the pleural space (space between the lungs and chest wall) to identify the bacteria that cause pneumonia.
Treatment for pneumonia
Specific treatment for pneumonia will be determined by your doctor based on:
- Your age, overall health, and medical history
- Extent of the condition
- Cause of the condition
- Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
- Expectations for the course of the condition
- Your opinion or preference
Treatment may include antibiotics for bacterial and mycoplasma pneumonia. There is no clearly effective treatment for viral pneumonia, which usually resolves on its own.
Other treatment may include:
- Appropriate diet
- Increased fluid intake
- Cool mist humidifier
- Acetaminophen (for fever and discomfort)
- Medication for cough
Some children may be treated in the hospital if you are having severe breathing problems. While in the hospital, treatment may include:
- Intravenous (IV) or oral antibiotics
- Intravenous (IV) fluids, if you are unable to drink well
- Oxygen therapy
- For children: frequent suctioning of nose and mouth (to help get rid of thick secretions)
- Breathing treatments