Obesity has a far-ranging negative effect on health. Each year obesity-related conditions cost over $100 billion and cause an estimated 300,000 premature deaths in the U.S. The health effects associated with obesity include, but are not limited to, the
- High blood pressure - Additional fat tissue in the body needs oxygen and nutrients in order to live, which requires the blood vessels to circulate more blood to
the fat tissue. This increases the workload of the heart because it must pump more blood through additional blood vessels. More circulating blood also means more pressure on the artery walls. Higher pressure on the artery walls increases the blood
pressure. In addition, extra weight can raise the heart rate and reduce the body's ability to transport blood through the vessels.
- Diabetes - Obesity is the major cause of type 2 diabetes. This type of diabetes begins in adulthood. Obesity can cause resistance to insulin, the hormone that regulates
blood sugar. When obesity causes insulin resistance, the blood sugar becomes elevated. Even moderate obesity dramatically increases the risk of diabetes.
- Heart disease - Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) is present 10 times more often in obese people compared to those who are not obese. Coronary artery disease is also more prevalent because fatty deposits build up in arteries
that supply the heart. Narrowed arteries and reduced blood flow to the heart can cause chest pain (angina) or a heart attack. Blood clots can also form in narrowed arteries and cause a stroke.
- Joint problems, including osteoarthritis - Obesity can affect the knees and hips because of the stress placed on the joints by extra weight. Joint replacement surgery, while commonly performed on damaged joints, may not be an advisable
option for an obese person because the artificial joint has a higher risk of loosening and causing further damage.
- Sleep apnea and respiratory problems - Sleep apnea, which causes people to stop breathing for brief periods, interrupts sleep throughout the night and causes sleepiness during the day. It also causes heavy snoring. Respiratory problems
associated with obesity occur when added weight of the chest wall squeezes the lungs and causes restricted breathing. Sleep apnea is also associated with high blood pressure.
- Cancer - In women, being overweight contributes to an increased risk for a variety of cancers including breast, colon, gallbladder and uterus. Men who are overweight have a higher risk of colon and prostate cancers.
- Metabolic syndrome - The National Cholesterol Education Program has identified metabolic syndrome as a complex risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome consists of six major components: abdominal obesity, elevated
blood cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance with or without glucose intolerance, elevation of certain blood components that indicate inflammation, and elevation of certain clotting factors in the blood. In the U.S., approximately
one-third of overweight or obese individuals exhibit metabolic syndrome.
- Psychosocial effects - In a culture where often the ideal physical attractiveness is to be overly thin, people who are overweight or obese frequently suffer disadvantages. Overweight and obese individuals are often blamed for their
condition and may be considered to be lazy or weak-willed. It is not uncommon for overweight or obese conditions to result in individuals having lower incomes or having fewer or no romantic relationships. Unsuccessful attempts at dieting to lose
weight can also lead to depression, which in itself can increase the risk of heart disease.